Journal of Political Science and International Relations

Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2021

  • National Security Concerns and India’s Expanding Naval Presence in the Indian Ocean

    Mohammed Khalid

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2021
    Pages: 72-77
    Received: May 04, 2021
    Accepted: Jun. 29, 2021
    Published: Aug. 18, 2021
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    Abstract: National security ensures the existence of the state through economic power, political power, diplomacy and military power. In the contemporary times military might and defense preparedness is just one aspect of national security and it surround a wide range of non-military variables such as economic security, energy security, environmental securit... Show More
  • Reflections on Freedom of Thought and Opinion Contained in the Fourth Principle of Pancasila

    Theodorus Christian Gunawan

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2021
    Pages: 78-82
    Received: May 26, 2021
    Accepted: Jul. 30, 2021
    Published: Aug. 18, 2021
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    Abstract: One of the human rights is freedom of thought and opinion. This right or freedom is contained in various laws. This freedom of thought and opinion is of course very necessary, especially in an era where democracy seems to be the most widely embraced in various countries. This is because the democratic system emphasizes the greatest possible soverei... Show More
  • Effectiveness of Multitrack Diplomacy Actors in Critical Assessment of Kenya’s Presidential Election Outcomes, 2007-2017

    David Owuor Okoth Sanmac, Pontian Godfrey Okoth, Elijah Onyango Standslause Odhiambo

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2021
    Pages: 83-95
    Received: Jun. 25, 2021
    Accepted: Jul. 05, 2021
    Published: Aug. 23, 2021
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    Abstract: In Kenya’s last four presidential elections, election observers had been seriously looked upon by both the Kenyan voters and the international community to provide alternative but credible information on the process and outcomes of presidential elections in Kenya. This was expected to promote legitimacy of the outcomes. Given that there was a deart... Show More
  • Social Communication and Intercultural Mediation in Decompartmentalizing Identity Groups in Socio-political Crisis Context in Cameroon

    Colette Djadeu Nguemedyam, Estelle Kamga Modjo

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2021
    Pages: 96-101
    Received: Apr. 20, 2021
    Accepted: May 14, 2021
    Published: Aug. 27, 2021
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    Abstract: From the corporatist strike in the North-West and South-West regions in 2016, from which the “Anglophone crisis” arose, to the campaign and the presidential elections of 2018, the results of which were openly contested by one of the candidates, there is the ongoing question of living together routinely emerge in the Cameroonian public space. These ... Show More
  • Zero Calculated Ambiguity: Unconditional Security Assurances for NWFZ-States Limit the Space for Deterrence

    Tarja Cronberg

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2021
    Pages: 102-111
    Received: May 25, 2021
    Accepted: Aug. 16, 2021
    Published: Aug. 31, 2021
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    Abstract: Calculated Ambiguity is a policy applied by the nuclear weapon states on negative security assurances given to the non-nuclear states. The goal of these assurances is to guarantee that states that have abstained from nuclear weapons will not be attacked by these weapons. The article demonstrates how these assurances have been watered down since the... Show More
  • Decision Making Processes in Counter-Terrorism Operations in Israel

    Amnon Sofrin

    Issue: Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2021
    Pages: 112-124
    Received: Aug. 23, 2021
    Accepted: Sep. 04, 2021
    Published: Sep. 11, 2021
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    Abstract: Israel is fighting terrorism from its very early days. The terror acts are characterized by carrying out lethal attack on Israeli residents and/ or the abduction of civilians / soldiers in order to free Palestinians imprisoned in Israeli jail. During the years Israel's counterinsurgency doctrine was shaped based on two main cornerstones – Moshe Day... Show More